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Part VII: Applications

InViVo-IORT -- A system for Quality Control in Intra-Operative Radiotherapy

Stefan Walter, Gerd StraBmann and Marco Schmitt

Intraoperative radiotherapy is a kind of brachytherapy where the remains of a surgically not completely removed tumour are irradiated at the open situ of the patient. The current main drawback of this treatment is the insufficient documentation of the applied radiation and the lack of a possibility for an individual treatment planning. This work presents a system that is a common development of the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics and Stadtische Klinik Offenback and MedCom GmbH that offers a possibility for interactive supervision of the placement of the irradiation flabs, the creation of a documentation of the applied isodose as well as the possibility for an individual intraoperative radiotherapy planning.

Computer Aided Facial Reconstruction for Forensic Identification

Simon D. Michael

Facial reconstruction has been widely criticised for its subjective nature and is thus often viewed as the last resort. Recent computer-aided reconstruction techniques, which claim to be objective, may be subject to similar errors. Until now, both manual and computer-aided techniques have utilised the same standard tissue depth reference tables. The inaccuracy of this data combined with the sparsity of anatomical landmarks contributes both to a lack of understanding of facial soft tissue changes between landmarks and the relatively low success rate of many of the existing facial reconstruction techniques. A new computer-aided facial reconstruction pipeline that utilises a new approach to volume deformation called multilevel free-form deformation addresses many of the problems encountered with past techniques. A review of previous reconstruction methods is provided with discussion of the strengths and limitations of these techniques. The new three-dimensional multilevel free-form deformation algorithm is described and areas are highlighted where the new deformation-based approach to reconstruction may offer possible solutions to existing problems.

A Morphological Approach to Volume Synthesis of Weathered Stones

Nao Ozawa and Issei Fujishiro

Lack of considering aging phenomena observed frequently in the real world gives rise to unreal synthetic objects. Aging effects are viewed to play an important role in achieving seamless imposition of synthetic objects upon acquired natural scenes. Several research groups have noticed the importance of such effects, and recently reported attractive results.

The primary target in this chapter is weathering of stones. Stones are quite common building material; weathering also needs its specific phenomenological modelling method. Stone objects start to get eroded on their surface interacting with the open air, leading to bumpy surfaces and rounded corners. In order to simulate such effects visually, mathematical morphology (MM)-based volumetric metamorphosis is adopted. An effective morphological operator, termed weathering, is devised by extending the conventional 3D opening MM operator with stochastic structuring elements. Preliminary experiments are performed with simply-shaped stone objects to illustrate the effectiveness of the present technique.

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Volumetric Modelling of 3D Text

Zhongke Wu and Edmond C. Prakash

This chapter describes a new application of voxel texture mapping to model volumetric 3D characters. The bit-mapped (hand-written and print) character conveys substantial information required for 3D character generation for virtual worlds. 2D characters contain space and position signatures that can be used for modelling the shape of 3D characters. This chapter addresses the fundamental problems of t3D artistic texture modelling without any additional context other than that required for 2D characters. We report on our experimental development of the 3D character modelling algorithm and its results. A generalised programming model for 3D character generation and its use is also discussed. Finally, we conclude by discussing extensions to the techniques for efficient 3D character design.

Page Editor: Andrew S. Winter Last Updated:1 February 2001